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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 174-178

Maternal and fetal risk factors associated with hypospadias in a sample of Iraqi boys

1 Department of Urosurgery, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of Health Audit, Directorate of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Baghdad, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Saif H Al-Tamimi
Department of Urosurgery, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/MJBL.MJBL_16_19

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Background: Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies among boys. The exact causes of this anomaly are not clearly defined yet. However, many of the risk factors have been identified in different ethnic groups. Objective: The objectives of this study are to evaluate the maternal- and fetal-related risk factors for hypospadias in a sample of Iraqi patients. Materials and Methods: This case–control study included 42 boys with hypospadias cases and other 42 age-matched boys free from any genital anomalies as a control group. Maternal data, including age, parity, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), the use of assisted reproduction techniques (ART), level of education, consanguinity, and residence; and infant-related factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict the risk of each variable through the calculation of odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% of confidence interval (CI). Results: Three maternal factors were found to be associated significantly with increased risk of hypospadias. These were maternal age >33 years (OR = 3.08, 95% CI = 1.02–9.26, P = 0.045), consanguineous marriage (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.02–8.8, P = 0.045), and rural residence (OR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.04–6.73, P = 0.041). Hypertension, DM, and using ART were more frequent among mothers of cases than controls; however, the differences were not significant. For fetal-related factors, infants with low-birth weight (LBW) were more frequent among cases than controls (40.48% vs. 19.05%), with a statistically significant difference (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.08–7.75, P =0.035). Of note, twins were more frequent among cases than controls; however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.074). Conclusions: These results highly suggest the critical role of advanced maternal age, consanguinity, rural residence, and infant LBW, as predisposing factors for the occurrence of hypospadias among Iraqi boys.

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