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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 6-18

Prevalence of the most frequent risk factors in Iraqi patients with acute myocardial infarction


1 Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Surgical Specialty Hospital Cardiac Center, Erbil, Iraq
2 College of Health Sciences, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq
3 Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Surgical Specialty Hospital Cardiac Center; Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq
4 Erbil Directorates of Health, Erbil, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shwan Othman Amen
Surgical Specialty Hospital - Cardiac Center, Erbil
Iraq
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/MJBL.MJBL_66_19

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Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its major manifestation of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are the most common causes of mortality and disability worldwide. Objectives: The major aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the most frequent risk factors for AMI in Iraqi patients, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, family history, insufficient physical activity, obesity, and abnormal coronary artery characteristics. Materials and Methods: In this study, 74 patients presented with AMI (51 males and 23 female) were enrolled. Laboratory investigations were carried out using enzymatic immunoassay technique. Results: The mean age was 55.5 ± 12.47 years, with an age range of 20–90 years. The incidence of AMI in male patients was significantly higher than that in female patients. Major findings showed that 85.1% of AMI patients were insufficiently physically active and 74.3% were hypertensive. High level of low-density lipoprotein was seen in 50% of patients, high triglycerides in 41.9%, low high-density lipoprotein in 39.2%, and high total cholesterol in 34%. Nearly 39.2% were smokers, 35.1% were obese, and 29.7% were diabetic. Interestingly, 51.4% of the AMI patients had a positive family history of CAD. The left anterior descending artery was the most common vessel involved during AMI. Conclusions: The findings of this study conclude that AMI occurs in older age and in male gender among Iraqi population, and ST-elevation MI is the main presentation. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking are the major risk factors. This study shed light on the primary prevention and control of these cardiovascular risk factors for CAD through healthy lifestyle, increased physical activity, and healthy dietary choices, which can reduce the prevalence of CAD.


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