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Histopathological effect of energy drinks (Red Bull) on Brain, Liver, Kidney, and Heart in Rabbits
Nadia Abdulkarim Salih, Israa Hameed Abdul-Sadaand, Nawzad Rasheed Abdulrahman
January-March 2018, 15(1):16-20
Background: Red bull has been known as a healthy drink within many populations. The chemical composition of energy drinks can produce multiple adverse effects, including serious behavioral effects. Objective: To study the effect of energy drinks (Red Bull) on brain, liver, kidney, and heart in rabbits. Methods: thirty males albino rabbits were used, animals divided into 3 groups (A, B, and C), each group contain 10 rabbits. Group A treated with high dose of red bull (10 cc), Group B treated with low dose (5 cc), and Group C is control group. Results: The results showed that control group had no any pathological changes while both Groups A and B showed many pathological changes, Group A showed renal vascular congestion, hemorrhage of interstitial tissue, focal atrophy, and degeneration of lining epithelium of proximal and distal convoluted tubules, while Group B showed renal vascular congestion, glomerular capillary congestion, hemorrhage of interstitial tissue with swelling of lining epithelium of proximal and distal convoluted tubules that appeared as pale cytoplasm with star-shaped lumen, and swelling of glomeruli; this reveals that there is dose–response relationship between treated groups with low and high dose of red bull. Conclusion: Energy drinks have dose–response relationship with adverse effect; it has become apparent that the consumption of these energy drinks will seriously harm the body.
  12,470 413 -
Prevalence, biochemical, and genetic analysis of mutated gene related to bitter taste perception for phenylthiocarbamide in Sulaymaniyah Province, Iraq
Harseen Mahmud Rahim, Rebin Kanabi Majeed, Nadia Ahmed Rostam
July-September 2018, 15(3):201-204
Background: Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste or any organic bitter compound is widely studied between nations. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of PTC taste sensitivity and its mutated gene frequencies among people in Sulaymaniyah, Iraq. Materials and Methods: PTC, thiourea, and sodium benzoate paper were used on the participants. Each participant was required to taste each paper differently; then, the results were recorded whether they were tasters or nontasters. Results: Analysis of data from the current study revealed that 70.4% of the Kurdish population is PTC tasters. Of them, 25 (8.3%) of participants were normal tasters, 124 (41.1%) were standard supertasters, 36 (11.9%) were recessive supertasters, and 116 (38.5) of them were dominant supertasters. Smoking showed no effect on the taste perception in this study. However, the rate of female tasters was higher than male tasters. Conclusion: The analysis of data from the current study revealed that most of the Kurdish population is PTC tasters. However, the rate of female tasters was higher than male tasters. Further studies are needed to investigate genetic composition of the Kurdish population.
  3,499 133 -
A comparison between the effect of shisha and cigarette smoking on serum lipid profile of males in Nasiriyah City
Shatha Hamed Chwyeed
January-March 2018, 15(1):39-42
Objective: This study aimed to recognize the harm of shisha smoking compared to cigarettes smoking by measuring serum lipid profile in males in AL-Nasiriya city and association lipid profile change with increase of smoking per day. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between June to December (2015) in Nasiriya city in Iraq ,all samples were randomly selected. Spectrophotometer was used for biochemical analysis for each group of lipid profile. The subjects were divided into three groups, cigarette smokers (n = 35), shisha smokers (n = 20) and non-smokers groups (n = 20). Age ranged between (30 – 60) years and mean of duration smoking was (13.4±1.3) years. Results: Results showed that the increased levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were significant in all groups of smokers as compared to non-smokers. Conclusion: The study concludes that the danger of shisha impact on human health may be similar or even worse than cigarette smoking.
  2,546 155 1
Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding diabetic mellitus among a sample of students at technical institute of Karbala
Ali Abd Al-Latif G. Mohammed, Ali Neamah Hasan Al-Aaragi, Mohammed Abdulridha Merzah
April-June 2018, 15(2):164-168
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a life-threatening disease whose complications can cause heart attack or stroke, blindness, and kidney failure. Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding DM among a sample of students at the Technical Institute of Karbala. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Al-Furat A-Awsat Technical University, Technical Institute of Karbala, Iraq. A total of 856 students were included in this study. Data were collected by direct interview with students using a questionnaire form. Results: Total sample in this study was 856 students (52.3% male and 47.7% female), 58 DM (Type II) patients were included in this study. The mean age of the study population was 20.86 ± 1.58 years (range of 17–25 years). The majority of students (48.8%) were in the age group of (≤20 years). The most of the respondents were single and lived in urban areas as represent 87.4% and 75.9%, respectively. Nearly 60% of cases had good and acceptable knowledge scores, while 50% had good and acceptable scores for attitude and practice regarding DM. Conclusion: The overall scores were good and acceptable regarding knowledge, attitude, and practice. A better educational program on diabetes should be conducted to improve awareness, attitude, and practice toward DM using mass media and health education in all Ministries.
  2,453 237 -
The impact of electrolytes in pathogenesis of simple febrile convulsions
Azad Farhan Hawas, Haydar Hashim Al-Shalah, Adnan Handhil Al-Jothary
January-March 2018, 15(1):12-15
Febrile convulsion is one of the most common seizure disturbances in children with an approximate rate of 2%–5%, febrile seizures (FSs) occur between the age of 6 and 60 months with a 38°C or higher temperature, and they do not result from central nervous system infection or any metabolic imbalance, and these seizures occur when a history of prior FSs is absent. In this study, 150 children whose ages ranged between 6 and 60 months were divided into three groups: Group A included 50 children with febrile convulsions, Group B included 50 children having fever without convulsion, and Group C included 50 healthy children with nonfebrile convulsions. In the present study, the serum sodium and potassium were significantly lower in cases of febrile convulsion than the control groups, whereas no significant changes were shown in the levels of ionic calcium in the cases of febrile convulsion when compared with the control groups. These findings revealed that there is a correlation between differences of serum sodium and potassium in simple febrile convulsion.
  1,862 218 -
LigaSure hemorrhoidectomy versus excisional diathermy hemorrhoidectomy for all symptomatic hemorrhoids
Ibrahim Falih Noori
January-March 2018, 15(1):83-88
Background: Hemorrhoidectomy by LigaSure electrosurgical unit seems to be very effective treatment and results in better surgical outcomes when compared with the conventional excisional hemorrhoidectomy. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the feasibility and the surgical outcomes of LigaSure hemorrhoidectomy with that of conventional diathermy excisional hemorrhoidectomy. Materials and Methods: Patients characteristics were comparable in both groups. Ninety six patients with symptomatic mainly grade III and IV piles were randomized for either conventional excisional hemorrhoidectomy (48 patients) or to LigaSure hemorrhoidectomy (48 patients) for the period from April 2014 to July 2016. The surgical outcomes of both procedures including the operative time, intra-operative blood loss, postoperative pain, analgesic requirements, early and late postoperative complications, wound healing, recovery time and return to work, recurrence and patient satisfaction were recorded, compared and evaluated. Results: The mean operative time and amount of intra-operative blood loss were significantly lower in LigaSure hemorrhoidectomy group. Postoperative pain and need for parentral analgesia were comparable in the first 24 -48 hours postoperatively, but they were significantly lower in LigaSure group after the second postoperative day. Faster wound healing and early return to work were obviously noted among patient subjected to LigaSure hemorrhoidectomy. Early postoperative complications were lower in LigaSure group while late complications were comparable in both groups. Lastly, LigaSure group showed high satisfaction rate compared to conventional hexcisional hemorrhoidectomy group. Conclusion: LigaSure hemorrhoidectomy is superior and more advantageous in term of operative time, blood loss, post-operative complications, faster wound healing and return to work. It is simple, feasible and easy to learn.
  1,745 123 -
Levels of cytokines profile in polycystic ovary syndrome
Shafaq H. Hussein Al-Musawy, Ihsan E Al-Saimary, Maysoon Sherif Flaifil
April-June 2018, 15(2):124-128
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the commonest endocrine disorder of female at reproductive age and it's prevalence in general population as 20%–33%. Objective: The aim of this study was to measure the level of interleukin (IL) 18, IL 6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in polycystic ovary women and compare their levels with apparently healthy control group. Materials and Methods: case-control study was carried out in Basra. In this study, blood samples from 73 women with PCOS and 73 healthy control women were collected from outpatients and private gynecological clinics and primary health care centers from different area of Basra during August 2016–March 2017 for estimation of their serum levels of IL6, IL18, and TNF alpha by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Results: It is found that serum levels of IL6, IL18, and TNF alpha were elevated in PCOS women, and we conclude that serum levels of IL6, IL18, and TNF alpha are highly statistically significance in PCOS women than in healthy control group. Conclusion: Levels of IL6, IL18, and TNF alpha were highly statistically significant in PCOS comparing to normal women, and these high levels were related to PCOS independent on the presence of obesity or hyperandrogenism.
  1,578 252 -
Prevalence of symptomatic urinary tract infections and asymptomatic bacteriuria in Iraqi pregnant women of Babylon Governorate
Najlaa Abass Al-Mamoryi, Abdulrazzaq Salman Al-Salman
January-March 2019, 16(1):5-12
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common infections among pregnant women. It can be lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Objective: The objective of the study is to determine the prevalence rate of symptomatic UTIs and asymptomatic bacteriuria of pregnant women in the Babylon Governorate and to determine its association with sociodemographic, obstetrical, and other factors. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study between March 2018 and June 2018 involves examining 300 pregnant women at primary health centers; Maternity and Pediatrics Hospital of Hilla city, with and without symptoms of UTI were employed for this study. Midstream urine samples were taken, and general urine examination was performed. Results: The results of this study revealed that the overall prevalence of UTI among pregnant was 64.6% which include (symptomatic bacteriuria 8.0%, asymptomatic bacteriuria 6.3%, and UTI 50.3%). The higher rate of UTI was found in lower age, multiparous women, and during the second trimester. Factors such as socioeconomic status, history of UTI, dysuria, and positive laboratory results were found to be significantly associated with UTI. Conclusion: UTI is still the common health problem in pregnant women especially during their second trimester. Urinalyses are essential for all pregnant women during the antenatal period. The screening will be assisted to early detection and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria which prevent complication for mother and baby.
  1,413 182 -
Early outcome of surgical intervention of esophageal atresia and tracheo-esophageal fistula in erbil pediatric surgical center
Najat Abdulkadr Hamad, Hawkar Abdullah Kak-Ahmed, Nooraddin Ismail Allaquli
April-June 2018, 15(2):129-134
Background: Esophageal atresia (EA) and treacheo-esophageal fistula occur in 1 out of every 3500 live births. Children born with EA have a higher incidence of prematurity than the general population EA. The treatment of EA and tracheo-esophageal fistula, although still a challenge, represents one of the true successes of newborn surgery. Objective: The aim of this study cases with EA and/or tracheo-esophageal fistula in Rapareen pediatric surgery center, Erbil, Iraq, regarding management, and early outcome. Materials and Methods: Fifty-three neonates were enrolled in this study from October 2011 to September 2015. Preoperative investigations included chest X-ray, ultrasound of the abdomen, and echocardiography. All patients were resuscitated before surgical intervention. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 was used for data analysis. Results: Out of 53 cases, 21 survived and 32 died. Thirty patients were male and 23 were female (male-to-female ratio 1.3:1). Twelve were premature and 41 term babies. The most common type was EA and distal fistula in 47 cases, pure atresia in 5 cases, and EA with both distal and proximal fistula in one case. Presenting features were excessive salivation in all cases, failure to pass nasogastric tube in 98.1%, cyanosis in 69.8%, and chocking in 37.7%. Prenatal history of polyhydramnios was present in 67.9%. Eighteen cases had associated anomalies, most of them were cardiac. Conclusion: EA with distal tracheo-esophageal fistula is the most common type of anomaly. Early diagnosis, weight, maturity, and associated anomalies are the most important factors that affect the outcome. Postoperative respiratory care is necessary, especially for those who have a preoperative chest infection.
  1,395 164 -
Isolation and diagnosis of phenolic compounds in pomegranate peel and their use in inhibition of intestinal pathogenic bacteria isolated from human intestine and stomach
Afraa Abdul-Wahab Ali, Ali Mohammed Jawad, Mufeed Jalil Ewadh
January-March 2018, 15(1):1-4
Background: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has gained commercial importance in food and health industries due to increasing scientific evidence linking its consumption to better health outcomes. Objective: This study aimed to detect the active substances (phenols, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and saponins) in the pomegranate peel and their effectiveness against bacteria isolated from intestine and stomach which included Salmonella and Escherichia coli, which are responsible for most gastrointestinal diseases. Materials and Methods: The experiment was designed randomly and was statistically analyzed using the least significant difference at P < 0.05. The plant extracts were obtained by alcoholic extraction using Soxholet. The compounds were diagnosed qualitatively and quantitatively using reference methods. Results: The results showed that peels contained high concentration compounds of alkaloid, tannic acid, and saponins. A 15% alcohol extract gave a high inhibition rate compared to the water extract and alcohol at a rate of 40 mm corresponds to 19 mm in the chloroform extract and 20 mm in the water extract at the concentration of 15%. A 15% concentration of alcoholic extract with antacid ampicillin and chlorophyll was compared with high efficacy compared to effective anti-ampicillin.
  1,328 183 -
Antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated from patients with diabetes mellitus and recurrent urinary tract infections in Babylon Province, Iraq
Mohammed Hassan Ali Alhamdany
January-March 2018, 15(1):63-68
Background: The emergence of the antibiotic resistance in the treatment of UTIs is a serious health problem, especially in the developing countries where there is high level of ignorance, poverty, and bad hygienic practices, Objective: The aim of this study was to detect the types of bacteria and their antibiotic sensitivity in patients with diabetes mellitus with recurrent urinary tract infections and compare between types of bacteria in patients with the previous admission to hospital from those who are not. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on eighty patients with diabetes mellitus and recurrent urinary tract infection, those patients who visited the Outpatient Unit in Diabetic and Endocrine Center in Merjan Medical City in Babylon Province. This study was carried out from March 1, 2016 to September 30, 2016. General urine examination was done to the patient with urinary tract infection. Urine samples were sent for culture and sensitivity against different types of antibiotics. Results: Results found that the mean age of the patients was (58.23 ± 14.38) and majority of them (63.7%) were female and (52.5%) of them came from rural area. The main bacteria causing urinary tract infection was Escherichia coli in more than 55% of cases, while the amikacin antibiotic regard as the best antibiotic in the treatment of urinary tract infection in this study with lowest resistance percentage (3.8%). Based on the history of previous admission to the hospital, there was 57.5% with a history of previous admission, and there was statistically significant difference in the types of bacteria between the two groups. Conclusion: There was significant difference in bacterial type between patients who previously had hospital admission and those who had not. E. coli was the main bacteria causing UTI in this study. Amikacin showed the best sensitive drug for bacteria that cause urinary tract infection.
  1,346 137 -
Essential oils of rosemary as antimicrobial agent against three types of bacteria
Ali Mohammed Jawad, Asmahan K Allawi, Hind Mufeed Ewadh
January-March 2018, 15(1):53-56
Background: Interest in Rosemary has increased due to the importance of being wide antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the biological affectivities of essential oils (EOs) of rosemary against three types of bacteria. Materials and Methods: Chemical analyses were conducted using gas chromatography technique on the volatile oils of rosemary, which were extracted by Clevenger. Results: The major contents of these oils were camphor (22.35%), camphene (1.85%), β-pinene (3.75%), sabinene (10.25%), limonene (7.64%), linalool (11.58%), and myrcene (2.14%). The biological affectivities of these oils were examined on three types of bacteria: Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas. The results proved that the EOs of rosemary were influential against bacteria and gave minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The MIC values were 37 μg/ml for E. coli, 69 μg/ml for Pseudomonas, and 20 μg/ml for B. cereus. Results found that Pseudomonas was less sensitive for these oils. Conclusion: The EOs of Rosemary can be used in the pharmaceutical industry for the production of new synthetic agents in the treatment of bacterial disease caused by these three types of bacteria.
  1,274 147 -
Doppler ultrasound hemodynamic assessment in preeclampsia
Azad Saleem Hassan, Maysaloon Shaman Saeed
April-June 2018, 15(2):191-194
Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is the main factor in maternal mortality across the world, affecting 5%–8% of pregnant women. The impairment in placental perfusion due to vascular abnormalities leads to clinical presentations and is detectable by Doppler ultrasound. Objective: The aim of the study is to assess the hemodynamic changes in pregnant women with and without PE, using Doppler ultrasound of the uterine, the umbilical, and the middle cerebral arteries. Materials and Methods: Forty pregnant women aged 19–40 years old, diagnosed with PE, were recruited from the outpatient gynecology clinic into a case–control study. Their Doppler ultrasound hemodynamic assessment of the uterine artery and its early diastolic notching, the middle cerebral artery, and the umbilical artery was compared to that of 60 matched control non-preeclampsia (non-PE) pregnant women aged 19–40 years old. Results: The proportions of patients with uterine artery, umbilical artery, and middle cerebral artery Doppler ultrasound abnormalities were 77.5%, 62.5%, and 37.5% in the PE group, compared to nil, 8.3%, and 11.7% in the non-PE women, respectively. Similarly, mean resistance index of each artery and proportions of notch parameters of the uterine artery showed significant differences between PE and non-PE patients (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Doppler ultrasound assessment in pregnant women of the uterine, the umbilical, and the middle cerebral arteries can be used to determine hemodynamic dysfunction associated with PE.
  1,272 124 -
Early complications of diagnostic and therapeutic ureteroscopy
Newar Mohammed Mahmoud, Shakir Saleem Jabali
January-March 2018, 15(1):93-98
Objective: The aim of this study is to report early complications of diagnostic and therapeutic ureteroscopy and to grade each complication according to modified Clavien classification system (MCCS). Materials and Methods: Through a prospective study conducted from March to September 2017, all patients who underwent diagnostic and therapeutic semirigid ureteroscopy were evaluated. The procedure was performed by different surgeons. The recording data included patient demographics, ureteroscopy site (left, right, or bilateral), aim of ureteroscopy (diagnostic or therapeutic), operative time, additional intervention, stone-free rate, double J stent placement, and complications which were graded according to the modefied clavien classification system with their management. Results: One hundred and fifty patients were included in the study. The average age was 39.9 years and male-to-female ratio 2.3/1. The number of patients who underwent right, left, and bilateral ureteroscopy was 74 (49.3%), 64 (42.3%), and 12 (8%), respectively, so the overall number of ureteroscopy procedures was 162. Diagnostic ureteroscopy was done in 20 (13.3%) patients and therapeutic ureteroscopy in 130 (87.7%). Complications occurred in 37.3% of patients. According to MCCS, Grade I, II, IIIa, IIIb, IVa, IVb, and V complications were detected in 40 (26.6%), 6 (4%), 10 (6.7%), 14 (9.3), 0 (0.0%), 2 (1.3%), and 0 (0.0%) of cases, respectively. Conclusion: Ureteroscopy becomes the prevailing procedure for different ureteral pathologies mainly stones with a good safety and efficacy. It is important to adopt a precise classification system for reporting the complications of ureteroscopy. Most of the complications are of low grade and they are amenable to conservative management. The complications of ureteroscopy will continue to decline as the ureteroscopic technology evolved.
  1,167 105 -
Immune profile in aborted Iraqi women with toxoplasmosis
Muhammed Abdul-Gabar Hamoodi Aldabagh, Sadeq Kadhin Hachim, Khalid Waleed Qassim, Qasim Sharhan Al-Mayah, Jabbar Salman Hassan, Dunya Fareed Salloom
January-March 2018, 15(1):48-52
Background: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important causes for abortion in women. The immune responses have a role in the outcome of such infection in gestated women. Aim: The current study was designed to investigate the immune profile in aborted Iraqi women with toxoplasmosis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five aborted women and 29 healthy control women were enrolled in this study. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to estimate serum levels to each of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor, IL-8, IL-4 IL-10, IL-12, interferon gamma (INF-γ), and IL-6. Single-radial-immunodiffusion assay was used to estimate serum levels of C3, C4, and total immunoglobulin gamma. Results: Serum levels of IL-8 showed significant elevation, while IL-6 and INF-γ showed significant dropping in infected women compared to control. Other immune factors showed nonsignificant differences between the two groups of the present study. Conclusion: Disturbance of immune response associated with toxoplasmosis may explain the success of parasite in escaping from discrimination and elimination by the immune system then supporting its survival and replication.
  1,114 129 -
Transvaginal cervical length and amniotic fluid index: Can it predict delivery latency following preterm premature rupture of membrane?
Amal Muneer Mubarak
January-March 2018, 15(1):78-82
Background: This study was performed to determine whether transvaginal cervical length (TVCL), amniotic fluid index (AFI), or a combination of both can predict delivery latency within 7 days in women presenting with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROMs). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of TVCL measurements in eighty singleton pregnancies with PPROM between 24–34 weeks. Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed to measure the CL and AFI. Delivery latency was defined as the period from the initial TVCL after PPROM to delivery of the baby, with our primary outcome being delivery within 7 days of TVCL. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were used to test whether the presence of a short TVCL, AFI, or a combination of both affected the risk of delivery within 7 days. Results: The study showed that the validity of CL alone in predicting labor when the cutoff value = 2 cm, the sensitivity = 52.6%, specificity = 69%, positive predictive value (PPV) = 60.6%, negative predictive value (NPV) = 61.7%, and accuracy = 61.25%. The validity of AFI alone when the cutoff value = 5 cm, the sensitivity = 71.1%, specificity = 50%, PPV = 56.3%, NPV = 65.6%, and accuracy = 60%. With a combination of CL and AFI in predicting time of labor after PPROM, the following results were found: sensitivity = 50%, specificity = 92.8%, PPV = 86.4%, NPV = 67.2%, and accuracy = 72.5%. In women with PPROM, we found the ratio of gestational age (GA) ≤30 weeks who labored within 7 days as 44.7% and those labored more than 7 days as 55.3%. Conclusion: Our study showed that there was an increase in PPV when combining AFI and CL in the prediction of time of labor, so women with AFI ≤5 and CL ≤2 had 86.4% risk of delivery within 7 days after PROM. Furthermore, we found that there was no significant association between GA and parity with the prediction time of labor.
  1,128 94 -
Effect of midazolam on bupivacaine action in intrathecal anesthesia
Anas Amer M Ajam, Ramadhan Jaafer Guri
January-March 2018, 15(1):43-47
Background: Subarachnoid anesthesia is regarded as one of the famous neuroaxial block procedures available nowadays. Neuraxial anesthesia offers many benefits over general anesthesia. Objective: This study is designed to compare the effect of adding 1 and 2 mg midazolam to hyperbaric bupivacaine on duration of sensory and motor block and intraoperative hemodynamic changes for the cesarian section under subarachnoid anesthesia. Methods: Ninety patients with the American Society of Anesthesiology Classifications I/II (range: 18–40 years) were randomly allocated into three groups and were underwent spinal anesthesia for Cesarean Section in Duhok Maternity Hospital, Iraq. Group A (n = 30) received intrathecal of bupivacaine 12.5 mg + 0.4 ml of normal saline, Group B (n = 30) intrathecal of bupivacaine 12.5 mg + 1 mg midazolam, and Group C (n = 30) intrathecal of bupivacaine 12.5 mg + 2 mg midazolam. The study groups were comparable in age and hemodynamic status changes prior and intra-intervention commencement. Results: The analgesic duration of those patients in Groups C and B were significantly longer, 183.33 and 181.00 min compared to 138.00 min in Group A for motor block (P < 0.0001) and 212.00, 210.00, and 142.00 min, respectively, for sensory block (P < 0.0001) with no any substantial difference in hemodynamic status changes. Conclusion: The longer duration of analgesic was found using midazolam adjuvant with bupivacaine compared to free adjuvant group in women underwent spinal anesthesia.
  999 208 -
Model of protein isoforms analysis by aqueous two-phase systems: Methodology importance in clinical biochemistry and biopharmaceutical production
Rana M Hameed
April-June 2018, 15(2):107-117
Aqueous phase partitioning has a long history of applications to the analytical characterization of biomolecules. However, process applications have attracted the most interest in biotechnology where it has become widely recognized as a cost-effective technique. The application of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) has been demonstrated in many cases including a number of industrial applications with excellent levels of purity and yield. This type of separation and purification system has also been successfully used for the separation of virus and virus-like particles. The advantage of this technique is that it may be used to monitor the aforementioned changes for purified proteins as well as for proteins in biological fluids, and that it is readily adaptable to automated high-throughput screening. However, the wide use of this technology has been diminished by the lack of a clear understanding of the factors and mechanisms that govern the behavior of proteins in these systems. It has prevented the development of analytical models that assist the rational design of these systems. This work has revised the development of ATPSs (preparation and sampling techniques), and also highlighted the knowledge gap in the ATPS.
  1,027 131 -
Prolactin serum levels and breast cancer: Relationships with hematological factors among cases in Karbala Province, Iraq
Jaafar Khalaf Ali, Salim Hussein Hassan, Mohammed A Merzah
April-June 2018, 15(2):178-181
Background: About one million of women are diagnosed with breast cancer globally and nearly half of whom will die from cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading of mortality among women. The present study aimed to find out the relationship breast cancer and levels of PRL and influence on some hematological parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 specimens were collected from females with breast cancer. Blood specimens were collected, and a blood group, packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and prolactin (PRL) level was evaluated. Results: The results show that most breast cancer cases were age group 40–50 years and less common among other age groups. The married women were 97% and the unmarried was 3% only. Most studied cases (43%) were O+ and (26%) were A+ blood group, in compare to other blood groups. In addition, many women show a slight decrease in Hb and PCV level (<11.0 g/dl, <36% respectively), on the other hand, the mean value of ESR was increased nonsignificantly (P > 0.05). The PRL levels were increased (31.5 ng/ml) in compare to the range of normal value (14.5 ng/ml) in women at all age groups. Conclusions: The study concludes that there was a relationship between PRL level and breast cancer with a highly significant value.
  1,063 63 -
Analysis of ear foreign bodies in adult patients
Abdulhusein Mizhir Almaamuri
July-September 2018, 15(3):197-200
Background: Foreign bodies (FBs) in the ear are frequently encountered by an otolaryngologist. Certain types of ear FBs in our adult patients may reflect negative phenomena in our community. Objectives: This study was carried out to analyze the main types of adult aural FBs and to highlight the increasing frequency of already known types and more interesting newly known type of FB. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective descriptive study of adult patients with aural FB seen in the ENT Department in Al-Mahawil Hospital for the 2 years – 2015 and 2016. The clinical presentation, type of FB, and management outcome were analyzed. Results: Two hundred and thirty-two patients aged 18–82 years were evaluated. Cotton wool (of the earbuds) was the most common FB with 93 (40%) patients (male: 54, female: 39) aged 21–82 years; the insect FB with 78 (33.7%) patients (male: 32, female: 46) aged 18–58 years; and garlic with 36 (15.5%) patients (male: 15, female: 21) aged 25–74 years; the newly known interesting FB put by the students into their ears during the examination was Bluetooth device in 15 (6.5%) patients (male only) aged 18–23 years; and miscellaneous FBs such as paper, broken matchstick and clinics were found in 10 (4.3%) patients (male: 7, female: 3) aged 35–60 years. All the FBs were unilateral and removed successfully without anesthesia, except four cases removed under general anesthesia. Complications did occur such as otitis externa: 8, bleeding and laceration: 6, and abrasion: 10. The complications were mainly due to previous unsuccessful trials and delayed referral. Conclusion: The increased abuse of earbuds causes more incidence of FB in the ears. We have seen more garlic in the ears because of misunderstanding of some traditional thoughts. Moreover, recently, we observed new FB, Bluetooth device objects in the ears of students. Health education of the general population is necessary for prevention.
  991 114 -
Diagnosis of the problems which facing the researchers during studying In vitro lead toxicity
Sabah Hussain Enayah
January-March 2018, 15(1):5-11
Background: Lead (Pb) is one of the most difficult metals to investigate in laboratory experiments because it is very easily precipitates or forms complex ions. Many experiments were conducted with Pb and observed unique chemical properties of this metal. Objective: The present investigation was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Pb exposer on pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells in different condition and media to admit the difficulties facing the researchers in bioavailability of Pb in media and prevent precipitation formation. Materials and Methods: Pb from 0.01 to 100 μM had been used on PC12 cells cultured and treated in different conditions for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. Resazurin assay was used to assess the cell viability.Result: As numerous studies have demonstrated a possible mechanism for Pb-induced neurotoxicity using in vitro model, the current study is the first study which explained the complexity of Pb participations in media that facing the authors and what the reason for that and how we can solve this problem to make pb more bioavailable in the media. Conclusion: Use of phosphate buffer in experiments with Pb is not acceptable because all Pb can be precipitated. However, it could be possible to use the standard media, but for the time of treatment with Pb phosphates must be removed from the media.
  996 98 -
A 5-year study of re-laparotomies, planned and unplanned, in Al-Hillah Teaching General Hospital
Kadhim CH. Hasan, Ali Kamal Abdul-Aemmah
January-March 2018, 15(1):25-27
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of re laparotomies (RLs) among laparotomies performed within 5-year period, the indications, and the main factors affecting the mortality rate. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted by evaluating file records of patients undergoing RL following abdominal surgery (2012–2016). The patients including, age, sex, type of the first surgical procedure, the cause of the re-exploration, the time interval between the index operation and the RL and the performed procedures, and the outcome were recorded. Results: Fifty-nine patients were included in the study, 83% were male. The mean age was 34.66 years. The mean duration between first operation and RL was 11.55 days. About 83.05% patients underwent RLs in the early period. The incidence of RLs was 1.62%. The indication for RLs was abdominal sepsis 23.72%, followed by intestinal obstruction 20.33% and missed injury 16.94%. The rate of RL among patients sustaining trauma was 37.28%, males 90.9%. Conclusion: We concluded that the incidence of RL is consistent with the literatures. The most :common indication was sepsis. Early intervention is the most important factor that can reduce the mortality when re-exploration is required.
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Prevalence and possible attributes of decreased visual acuity among primary schoolchildren in Kufa City, Al-Najaf Governorate
Atheer Jawad Abdulameer, Shaymaa Abdul Lteef Alfadhul, Huda Ghazi Hameed, Alyaa Abood Kareem
January-March 2018, 15(1):57-62
Background: Visual impairment in children is a severe worldwide public problem. It can be detrimental to child's ability to learn. In Iraq, the size of this problem among primary school children is not well defined. Objectives: to determine the prevalence of visual impairment among primary school children in Kufa city, Al Najaf Governorate and to identify some factors associated with decreased visual acuity in the sample. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study was performed during the period of 1st of March to the 15th of April, 2017; the studied sample was 630 primary school children aged 6 to 15 years of both genders from fourteen governmental schools, both students and schools were randomly selected. Data were collected by using questionnaire designed especially for this study. Measurement of each pupil's vision was done by using standard Snellen E chart. Those with visual acuity(VA<6/6) was regarded as visually impaired. The Statistical Package for Social Science, SPSS, (version 20) program was used for data entry and analysis. Results: From the total participants, there were 533(84.6%) students with normal VA(VA=6/6), 97(15.4%) students with decreased VA(VA<6/6). It was found that majority 81/97 (84.5%) of children with decreased VA were under the age of 10 years with a high significant statistical difference (X2=28.028, P = 0.0001). Statistical analysis showed a significant association of decreased vision with female gender (X2=4.429, P = 0.0353), rural residency (X2=6.446, P = 0.01), low socioeconomic status (X2=7.128, P = 0.028), and positive family history of wearing spectacles(X2=7.414, P = 0.006), the highest rate of decreased visual acuity was shown in the students of second grade( 24.7%), however, the grade was not statistically significant (X2=7.128, P = 0.265). The overall prevalence of low vision (VA≤6/18) in the studied sample was 5.4% (34/630), statistically, there is a significant correlation between poor vision and female gender (P = 0.031), however, there is no significant association of poor vision with residency (P = 0.373), socioeconomic status (P = 0.431), and family history of using spectacles (P = 0.146). Conclusions: The prevalence of decreased visual acuity among primary school children in Kufa city was 15.4%., reduced vision is significantly higher in younger age group(≤10 years old), female gender, rural residency, lower socioeconomic status, and in those of positive family history of wearing spectacles. Female gender is significantly associated with low vision.
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The role of autonomic neuropathy in predicting ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
Zahid Mohammed A Kadhim
January-March 2018, 15(1):21-24
Background: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a life-threatening iatrogenic complication of ovarian stimulation during the assisted reproductive technique. Objective: This study was aimed to elucidate the effect of autonomic neuropathy on the occurrence of OHSS during assisted reproductive techniques. Materials and Methods: One hundred subfertile women underwent ovarian stimulation. The ovarian response was diagnosed by hormone concentrations and vaginal ultrasound. Autonomic function tests were done for all patients using Ewing's protocol. Results: Twenty-eight percent of subfertile women involved in this study had autonomic neuropathy. Out of 100 infertile women undergoing ovarian stimulation, only 5 (5%) had been developed OHSS, all of them had autonomic neuropathy (P < 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of the autonomic neuropathy for the occurrence of OHSS was 100% and 58% which was insignificant (P > 0.05). The best cutoff score associated with OHSS was ≥1.5 which detected from receiver operating characteristic curve. The odds ratio for the absence of OHSS in patients without neuropathy was 9.891, which was significant as compared with the patients with neuropathy (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The study concludes that ovarian stimulation may cause autonomic function disturbance which can predict OHSS.
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Associated clinical manifestations and self-management approaches of primary dysmenorrhea among adolescent students in Erbil City, Iraq
Awaz Aziz Saeed
April-June 2018, 15(2):150-154
Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological problems among adolescent females which interferes with daily activities and affects their physical and emotional aspects and has a negative impact on quality of life. Self-medication for primary dysmenorrhea is a very common practice. Objective: This study aimed to find the associated clinical manifestations and self-management approaches of primary dysmenorrhea and its relations with some demographical and menstrual characteristics. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 dysmenorrheic adolescent students in secondary schools in Erbil city, during the period from March to June 2016. A purposive (nonprobability) sampling was used. A questionnaire format was prepared by researcher which included following parts: sociodemographic data, menstrual data, clinical manifestation, and self-management approaches to minimize this problem. Results: Majority of the study samples aged between 14 and 17 years, their school class was 11, the education of their mothers was illiterate, and mothers' occupation was housewife. Regarding the menstrual characteristics, age of menarche among majority of the study samples was between 12 and 14 years, frequency of menstrual cycle was between 29 and 31 days, and level of pain during menstruation was severe. There was a high significant association between headache, breast tenderness, and age of adolescents. Significant association was also found between reduced ability of concentration and age of menarche. There was a significant relationship between self-management approach used by adolescents with school class and regularity of blood flow. Conclusion: Primary dysmenorrhea considerably affected physical activity and concentration of students. Self-management approaches practiced by adolescent participated in this study were poor.
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