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Table of Contents
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 264-266

Coumarin is most medical and therapeutic component of Iraqi medicinal plant Atriplex nummularia

1 Department of Pharmacognosy and Medical Plants, Faculty of Pharmacy, Uruk University, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Departmnet of Pharmacognosy and Medical Plants, Faculty of Pharmacy, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq

Date of Web Publication24-Sep-2018

Correspondence Address:
Yamama Khalid Abdulmueed
Department of Pharmacognosy and Medical Plants, Faculty of Pharmacy, Uruk University, Baghdad
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/MJBL.MJBL_79_18

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How to cite this article:
Abdulmueed YK, Kadium EJ. Coumarin is most medical and therapeutic component of Iraqi medicinal plant Atriplex nummularia. Med J Babylon 2018;15:264-6

How to cite this URL:
Abdulmueed YK, Kadium EJ. Coumarin is most medical and therapeutic component of Iraqi medicinal plant Atriplex nummularia. Med J Babylon [serial online] 2018 [cited 2023 Feb 7];15:264-6. Available from: https://www.medjbabylon.org/text.asp?2018/15/3/264/242077

Dear Editor,

Old man saltbush Atriplex nummularia Lindl. is a halophyte species and one of the most important forage shrubs suited to alkaline and saline lowlands A. nummularia Lindl. occurs spontaneously in areas and can be cultivated plants of the Atriplex genus are perennial.[1]A. nummularia was evaluated for its secondary metabolite contents and its antibacterial activity.

Eleven compounds were isolated from this plant. Total extract and different plant fractions were screened for their antibacterial activity coumarins are the major constituent of A. nummularia. The pharmacological activity of this plant includes antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant effect, antimicrobacterial activity, and antifungal activity.[2]

Coumarins (2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) consist of a large class of phenolic substances found in plants.[3] The coumarins are of great interest due to their pharmacological properties. Coumarins are an important class of compounds of both natural and synthetic origin. Many compounds which contain the coumarin moiety exhibit useful and diverse pharmaceutical and biological activities.

Some of these coumarin derivatives have been found useful in a photochemotherapy, antitumor, anti-HIV therapy, as central nervous system-stimulants, antibacterial, anticoagulants, antifungal, antioxidant agents, and as dyes. Natural, semi-synthetic, and synthetic coumarins are useful substances in drug research.[4]

Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Shimadzu), preparative thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and infrared. All chemicals and solvents are of analytical grade. Standard coumarin was obtained from Sigma Aldrich Company.

The aerial parts of A. nummularia were collected from Baghdad. The plant was identified and authenticated by Prof. Ibraheem Saleh (College of Pharmacy, Al-Mustansiriya University). Dried for several days at room temperature and then grinded as powder.

Extraction aerial part of plant (1000 g) by Soxhlet apparatus with methanol (80%) (1000 mL) till exhaustion. The extract concentrated by evaporation under vacuum. Water (100 ml) was added, and the suspension was partitioned with petroleum ether (2 × 100 ml). The petroleum ether layer was discarded, and the aqueous layer was extracted with chloroform (3 × 100 ml). The combined chloroform layers were dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The collected fractions were analyzed by TLC comparing with standard coumarin.

The Rf value of isolated coumarin was compared with standard coumarin. Preparative TLC was performed using 0.5 mm thickness silica gel. Elution of the isolated band was conducted with AR grade acetone.

Isolated coumarin was identified by melting point. 72°C which was identical with that reported in the literature. TLC of isolated coumarin was compared with standard in three solvent systems [Table 1].
Table 1: Rf of standard and isolated coumarin in three solvent system

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The occurrence of coumarin in the plant was confirmed by GC/MS [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of Atriplex nummularia

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The retention time of coumarin was 14.7 min. The fragmentation pattern of isolated coumarin was identical with that reported in the literature [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Fragmentation pattern of isolated coumarin

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Results of isolated coumarin are also compared with IR spectra of standard coumarin [Figure 3]. HPLC also support the occurrence of coumarin [Figure 4]. The valuable Iraqi medicinal plant A. nummularia, contains coumarin as a major active constituents. Coumarin is responsible for most medical and therapeutic function in this plant. The percentage of coumarinin Atriplex of Iraq was 0.62%. This percentage indicates that A. nummularia of Iraq is official herb (blood pressure) since the percentage is more than 0.3% and <0.9%.
Figure 3: Infrared of isolated and standard coumarin

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Figure 4: High-performance liquid chromatography of standard (a) and extracted (b) coumarin

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

de Souza ER, Freire MB, de Melo DV, Montenegro Ade A. Management of Atriplex nummularia Lindl. In a salt affected soil in a semi arid region of Brazil. Int J Phytoremediation 2014;16:73-85.  Back to cited text no. 1
El-aasr M, Kabbash A, El-seoud KA, Al-Madboly LA, Tsuyoshi IT. Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of flavonol glycosides isolated from Atriplex halimus L. Herb Pharm Sci Res 2016;8:1159-68.  Back to cited text no. 2
Venugopala KN, Rashmi V, Odhav B. Review on natural coumarin lead compounds for their pharmacological activity. Biomed Res Int 2013;2013:963248.  Back to cited text no. 3
Salem MA, Marzouk MI, El-Kazak AM. Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Coumarins with in vitro Antitumor and Antioxidant Activity and High Protective Effects Against DNA Damage. Molecules 2016;21:249.  Back to cited text no. 4


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]

  [Table 1]


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