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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 327-331

Frequency and prognostic significance of hypercalcemia in patients with multiple myeloma


1 Department of Hematology, Hiwa Cancer Hospital, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
2 Department of Medicine, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraq
3 Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Sulaymaniyah, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
4 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
5 Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraq
6 Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
7 Department of Hematology, Nanakali Hospital, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Kanar J Karim
Department of Hematology, Hiwa Cancer Hospital, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region
Iraq
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/MJBL.MJBL_54_20

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Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is defined as a clonal B-cell malignancy of the bone marrow. Hypercalcemia is associated with cancers in general and in MM specifically becomes more obvious with frequent adverse outcomes. Objectives: The objective is to determine the frequency of hypercalcemia in MM patients and survival rate after 3 years of diagnosis with the assessment of relationship between MM prognosis and hypercalcemia. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data were reviewed from the Hematology and Cancer Centers of Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI, Erbil, Sulaymaniyah, and Duhok) from January 2012 to December 2017 on a sample of 130 patients with MM. The diagnosis of MM and hypercalcemia was done according to the International Myeloma Working Group definition of MM and serum calcium of ≥11 mg/dl. Results: The prevalence of hypercalcemia among MM patients after calcium correction was 17.7%. Serum creatinine level is significantly higher among MM patients with hypercalcemia. There was a significant association between high death rates and MM patients with hypercalcemia. The mean survival of MM patients was 4.5 years and 72% of the MM patients had 3-year survival, which decreased to <41% for 6-year survival. The survival of MM patients with hypercalcemia was significantly shorter than survival of patients without hypercalcemia. Conclusions: The frequency of hypercalcemia among MM patients in KRI is within the international acceptable range and is regarded as a poor prognostic factor that is associated with higher mortality and shorter survival.


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