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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 358-362

High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with acute myocardial infarction: An Iraqi single-center study


1 Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Surgical Specialty Hospital - Cardiac Center, Erbil, Iraq
2 College of Health Sciences, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq
3 Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Surgical Specialty Hospital - Cardiac Center; Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq
4 Cardiac Surgery Department, Surgical Specialty Hospital - Cardiac Center, Erbil, Iraq
5 Erbil Directorates of Health, Erbil, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Shwan Othman Amen
Surgical Specialty Hospital - Cardiac Center, Erbil
Iraq
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/MJBL.MJBL_67_19

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Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide despite current advances in primary preventive and state-of-the art interventional strategies for effective CAD treatment. The major manifestation of CAD is the acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of coronary atherosclerosis and AMI. Objectives: The major aim of this study was to determine the association of Vitamin D deficiency with AMI in Iraqi patients living in this region. Materials and Methods: Vitamin D level status was determined in 148 patients presented with AMI and 148 of healthy controls. Measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels was performed using enzymatic immunoassay method. Normal serum 25(OH) D level is = 30 ng/ml, while patients with level of 20–30 ng/ml was classified as insufficient, and those with level 10–20 ng/ml as deficient. The severe Vitamin D deficiency in patients was defined when serum 25(OH) D level was = 10 ng/ml. Results: The mean of 25(OH) D level was significantly lower in patients with AMI (8.73 ng/ml) as compared to healthy controls (13.60 ng/ml). Notably, the prevalence of severe deficiency of 25(OH) D level (<10 ng/ml) was higher in patients with AMI (67.6%) as compared to that in healthy controls (51.4%). This difference was statistically significant. Similar trend was observed for the prevalence of deficient Vitamin D level (≥10–<20 ng/ml) in cases (28.4%) as compared to control group (24.3%). Moreover, 4.1% of AMI patients showed insufficient 25(OH) D level in comparison to 13.5% in healthy individuals of control group. Interestingly there were no AMI patients with sufficient 25(OH) D level (30–100 ng/ml) while 10.8% of healthy individuals in the control group showed sufficient 25(OH) D level. Conclusions: This study concludes that Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition in patients with AMI among Iraqi population and it is an emerging new risk factor associated with AMI.


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