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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 80-82

Relationship between the ABO blood group and lung cancer susceptibility


Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Date of Submission13-Dec-2020
Date of Acceptance20-Feb-2021
Date of Web Publication26-Jun-2021

Correspondence Address:
Zahir Salih Hussein
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region
Iraq
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/MJBL.MJBL_91_20

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  Abstract 


Background: Lung cancer (LC) is one of the well-known fatal malignant neoplasms worldwide. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the potential relationship between ABO and Rhesus blood groups with LC. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case series study was done on 500 patients diagnosed with LC using hospital case reports of both Nanakali Hospital and Rizgary Teaching Hospital and 182,408 healthy blood donors in Erbil city of Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Results: Blood groups of 500 LC patients were as follows: blood group A, 156 (31.2%); blood group B, 111 (22.2%); blood group O, 196 (39.2%); and blood group AB, 37 (7.4%), whereas blood groups of healthy donors were as follows: blood group A, 56,546 (31%); blood group B, 43,413 (23.8%); blood group O, 68,221 (37.4%); and blood group AB, 14,228 (7.8%). The difference was statistically not significant by Pearson's Chi-square (P = 0.909). Rh of patients was as follows: Rh negative in 42 patients (8.4%) and Rh positive in 458 patients (91.6%), whereas Rh of healthy donors was as follows: Rh negative in 18,241 patients (10%) and Rh positive in 164,167 patients (90%). The difference was statistically not significant by Pearson's Chi-square (P = 0.381). Conclusion: According to the results of the study, we found that there was no statistically significant relationship between ABO-Rhesus blood groups' LC susceptibility in general and also between different histopathological types.

Keywords: ABO, blood group, lung cancer, Rhesus


How to cite this article:
Hussein ZS. Relationship between the ABO blood group and lung cancer susceptibility. Med J Babylon 2021;18:80-2

How to cite this URL:
Hussein ZS. Relationship between the ABO blood group and lung cancer susceptibility. Med J Babylon [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 27];18:80-2. Available from: https://www.medjbabylon.org/text.asp?2021/18/2/80/319513




  Introduction Top


Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.[1] Despite smoking, which is a significant risk factor for LC, there are many other environmental and genetic risk factors for LC.[2],[3] ABO blood group was discovered in 1900 by Karl Landsteiner at the University of Vienna, and he received the Nobel Prize for this discovery in 1930.[4] ABO blood group antigens are a group of glycolipids and glycoproteins; these antigens are participating in cellular differentiation, proliferation, maturation, and malignant transformation.[5] ABO blood group gene is mapped at chromosome 9q34, in which the genetic alterations are common.[6] The correlation of ABO blood groups with the development of certain cancers such as gastrointestinal cancer, urinary tract cancer, liver cancer, and LC is observed.[7],[8] Because the data on the role of ABO blood group factor in LC are limited, therefore, this study aimed to determine the potential relationship of ABO and Rhesus blood groups with LC.


  Materials and Methods Top


Study design and sampling

A retrospective case series study was done on 500 patients diagnosed with LC using Hospital case reports of both Nanakali Hospital and Rizgary Teaching Hospital and 182,408 healthy blood donors in Erbil city of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Medical records from both Nanakali Hospital and Rizgary Teaching Hospital were reviewed, and variables such as age, gender, blood group, and Rh and histopathological type of tumor were studied from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2018. The data about healthy donors such as sex, blood group, and RH from Erbil blood bank were taken from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2018.

Statistical analysis

The statistical calculations were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 (SPSS 23, IBM Company, Chicago, IL, USA). In cross tables, the Chi-square test was used. Fisher's exact test was used when the Chi-square test was inappropriate. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Ethical consideration

The study was conducted in accordance with the ethical principles that have their origin in the Declaration of Helsinki. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee at Hawler Medical University.


  Results Top


In this retrospective study, medical records of 500 patients with LC and 182,408 healthy blood donors from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2018, were reviewed.

The ABO blood group and Rh factor are shown in [Figure 1] in which the blood group O RH(+) is the most frequent (36%) followed by blood group A RH(+) (29%) while least frequent was blood group AB RH(−) (1%).
Figure 1: The ABO blood group and Rh factor in patients with lung cancer

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Blood groups of patients were as follows: blood group A, 156 (31.2%); blood group B, 111 (22.2%); blood group O, 196 (39.2%); and blood group AB, 37 (7.4%), whereas blood groups of healthy donors were as follows: blood group A, 56,546 (31%); blood group B, 43,413 (23.8%); blood group O, 68,221 (37.4%); and blood group AB, 142,28 (7.8%). The difference was statistically not significant by Pearson's Chi-square (P = 0.909), as shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: Distribution of ABO blood groups in lung cancer cases compared with controls


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Rh of patients was as follows: Rh negative in 42 patients (8.4%) and Rh positive in 458 patients (91.6%), whereas Rh of healthy donors was as follows: Rh negative in 18,241 patients (10%) and Rh positive in 164,167 patients (90%). The difference was statistically not significant by Pearson's Chi-square (P = 0.381), as shown in [Table 2].
Table 2: Comparison of Rh factor between lung cancer patient and control groups


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[Table 3] compares the ABO blood groups and Rh factor between different LC histopathological types, and the difference was statistically not significant by Pearson's Chi-square (P = 0.783).
Table 3: Comparison of ABO blood groups and Rh factor between different lung cancer types


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  Discussion Top


The ABO blood group is by far the most important among human blood group systems for tumorigenesis.[9] There are many studies on the association of ABO blood group and Rh with LC with different results. In our study, there was no significant correlation between ABO blood groups with LC in general and also between different histopathological types. There are some studies which support our findings which include the following:

Oguz et al. and Chrysanthakopoulos and Dareioti found no relationship between the ABO-Rhesus blood groups and LC.[10],[11] Another study done by Unal D et al. found no significant effect of the ABO blood group on prognosis in nonmetastatic locally advanced non-small cell LC (NSCLC).[12]

On the other hand, some studies concluded that there is a positive correlation between blood group and the risk of LC like the following studies. Zhang et al. concluded that blood group A is associated with an increased risk of cancer,[13] while on the contrary, Suadicani et al. found that blood group O is a risk factor for LC mortality than blood group A.[14] Another study done by Sánchez-Mora et al. suggests that the loss of histo-blood antigen expression is an event in the carcinogenesis of the bronchial mucosa, and it is usually associated with high-grade lesions.[15]

Some previous studies conclude that Rh positivity alone without an ABO blood group is a risk factor for LC.[16] In contrast, other researches showed that the absence of Rh factor has a two-fold increased risk for NSCLC,[17] but in our study, Rh has no relationship with LC.


  Conclusion Top


According to the results of our study, we found that there was no statistically significant correlation between ABO-Rhesus blood groups with LC in general and also between different histopathological types.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 2011;61:69-90.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Dela Cruz CS, Tanoue LT, Matthay RA. Lung cancer: Epidemiology, etiology, and prevention. Clin Chest Med 2011;32:605-44.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Couraud S, Zalcman G, Milleron B, Morin F, Souquet PJ. Lung cancer in never smokers – A review. Eur J Cancer 2012;48:1299-311.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Farhud DD, Zarif Yeganeh M. A brief history of human blood groups. Iran J Public Health 2013;42:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Franchini M, Liumbruno GM, Lippi G. The prognostic value of ABO blood group in cancer patients. Blood Transfus 2016;14:434-40.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Westhoff CM, Storry JR, Shaz BH, Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al. Human Blood Group Antigens and Antibodies, Hematology. Basic Principles and Practice, 7th Edition.chapter 110; 2018:1687-701.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Huang JY, Wang R, Gao YT, Yuan JM. ABO blood type and the risk of cancer - Findings from the Shanghai Cohort Study. PLoS One 2017;12:e0184295.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Hsiao LT, Liu NJ, You SL, Hwang LC. ABO blood group and the risk of cancer among middle-aged people in Taiwan. Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2015;11:e31-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Storry JR, Olsson ML. The ABO blood group system revisited: A review and update. Immunohematology 2009;25:48-59.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Oguz A, Unal D, Tasdemir A, Karahan S, Aykas F, Mutlu H, et al. Lack of any association between blood groups and lung cancer, independent of histology. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013;14:453-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Chrysanthakopoulos NA, Dareioti NS. ABO blood group and the risk of lung cancer in Greek adults: A case-Control study. Exp Oncol 2018;40:249-50.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Unal D, Eroglu C, Kurtul N, Oguz A, Tasdemir A, Kaplan B. ABO blood groups are not associated with treatment response and prognosis in patients with local advanced non- small cell lung cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013;14:3945-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Zhang BL, He N, Huang YB, Song FJ, Chen KX. ABO blood groups and risk of cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014;15:4643-50.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Suadicani P, Hein HO, Gyntelberg F. ABO phenotypes and inflammation-related predictors of lung cancer mortality: The Copenhagen Male Study-A 16-year follow-up. Eur Respir J 2007;30:13-20.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Sánchez-Mora N, Cebollero Presmanes M, Monroy V, Herranz Aladro M, Alvarez-Fernández E. Expression of histo-blood group antigens in bronchial squamous metaplasia. Eur Respir J 2007;29:268-72.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Alqudah M, Allouh M, Hamouri S, Zaitoun A, Al-Ghamdi N, Aladily TN, et al. Is Rh positivity a possible risk factor for lung cancer? Jordan J Biol Sci 2018;11:281-4.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Kapoor A, Kumar N, Kalwar A, Narayan S, Nirban RK, Jakhar SL, et al. Allele frequency of abo and Rh blood group and the risk of non small cell lung carcinoma. Ann Oncol 2015;26 Suppl 1:i1-5.  Back to cited text no. 17
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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